Senin, 22 Juni 2009

Descriptive text

Descriptive text is a text that draw or teil about something detail. The purpose of descriptive text to describe spesific thing or an object.

Generic structure :
Identification : Identify phenomenon to be describe
Description : Description in detail
Example :


Cat is one of the famous pet that so many people like it.
Cat has a tail. From its mouth it makes a sound of " miau ". Cat is cute. It has soft fur. It also has four legs and four sharp claws. Cat likes mouse. Cat lives at home with people who keep it has their pet

Note : Red : Identification
Blue : Description


Advertisement is information for persuad and motivate a people so that it will anracted. Them to the service and things that are affered.

Function advertisement are :
- Promotion
- Communication
- Information

In making advertisement, keep the following points :
1. Language of advertisement
Using the correct or suitable world
Using the interesting expression and suggestive
Using positive cannotations
Text of advertisement snold directly to the go
2. Advertisement content
Objective and hanest
Brief and clear
Don't to allude group and to other producer
Attractive attention

News Item

A news item text is a factual. The text which informs readers of daily newspapers about events and the day which are regarded as newsworthy or important

The structure of the text consist of three parts :

Newsworthy event : Recounts the events in summary form
Background event : Elaborate what happened, to whom and in what circumstances
Source : Comments by participants in, witnesses to, and authorities expert on the event

Surprise or Disbeliefs

Surprise or disbeliefs is an expression that we show/say when know/hear/see something that rather difficult to believe.

Example :
Dina : " Look ; I got "
Dysa : " That`s very surprising "
Dina : " I don`t know why "
Dysa : " Perhaps you did the wrong number "
When get a surprising fact, you can say those to tell other people :
Do you know what ?
Believe it or not ?
You may not believe it, but ...
Can you believe it ?
Respons :
Really ?
Are you joking ?
Where ? show me
There are some ways to express surprise :
Never !
Oh, no!
No, is, i don`t believe it !
You`re kidding
What a surprise
Good heavens
My goodness

Narrative text

Narratibe text is to tell something in the past. The purpose is to entertain, created/stimulated emotion, motivate, guide and teach

Example :
Legend : Malin kundang, Lake toba
Fable : Birds and snake, etc
Fairy tale : Snow white, Cinderella
Horor : The wall, House of the death
Sciencefiction : Alien
The generic structure of narrative text :

Orientation : The setting of the story :
The starting point of a narrative story to make readers understand what the story`s talking about
Describing the main character of the story
Complication : The problem raises in the story

Resolution : The thing happens after the problem raised

Passive voice

Use of Passive

Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action.

Example: My bike was stolen.

In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.

Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows:

Example: A mistake was made.

In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.).
Form of Passive

Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)

Example: A letter was written.

When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

* the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
* the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
* the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

Examples of Passive Level: lower intermediateLevel 2
Tense Subject Verb Object
Simple Present Active: Rita writes a letter.
Passive: A letter is written by Rita.
Simple Past Active: Rita wrote a letter.
Passive: A letter was written by Rita.
Present Perfect Active: Rita has written a letter.
Passive: A letter has been written by Rita.
Future I Active: Rita will write a letter.
Passive: A letter will be written by Rita.
Hilfsverben Active: Rita can write a letter.
Passive: A letter can be written by Rita.
Examples of Passive Level: upper intermediateLevel 4
Tense Subject Verb Object
Present Progressive Active: Rita is writing a letter.
Passive: A letter is being written by Rita.
Past Progressive Active: Rita was writing a letter.
Passive: A letter was being written by Rita.
Past Perfect Active: Rita had written a letter.
Passive: A letter had been written by Rita.
Future II Active: Rita will have written a letter.
Passive: A letter will have been written by Rita.
Conditional I Active: Rita would write a letter.
Passive: A letter would be written by Rita.
Conditional II Active: Rita would have written a letter.
Passive: A letter would have been written by Rita.
Passive Sentences with Two Objects Level: intermediateLevel 3

Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on.
Subject Verb Object 1 Object 2
Active: Rita wrote a letter to me.
Passive: A letter was written to me by Rita.
Passive: I was written a letter by Rita.

As you can see in the examples, adding by Rita does not sound very elegant. That’s why it is usually dropped.
Personal and Impersonal Passive

Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive.

Example: They build houses. – Houses are built.

Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction – therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.

Example: he says – it is said

Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e.g. German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say, think, know).

Example: They say that women live longer than men. – It is said that women live longer than men.

Although Impersonal Passive is possible here, Personal Passive is more common.

Example: They say that women live longer than men. – Women are said to live longer than men.

The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence; the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with 'to' (certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped).

Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.

Modals In The Past Form

Modals in the Past form dalam bahasa Indonesia adalah kata bantu pengandaian dalam bentuk lampau.
Modals in the past are :
1. Could
2. Would
3. Should
4. Shall
*Could + Verb base
We can use this expression : to offer suggestion or possibilities.
Example :
Nia : I’m having trouble with math.
Rizki : Why don’t you ask Novita ?
Perhaps she could help you.
*Might + Verb base
Use might to tell possibillities.
Example :
Helda : Why is Rio taking the bus to get home.
Fany : He might get a flat time.

*Would + verb base
Use would for an action that was repeated regulary in the past.
Example :
Yoan : What did you usually do on holidays ?
Lia : I would visit my grandparents In the village, but how not anymore.
*Would + Mind + V-ing
Use would to express polite request.
Example :
Mrs. Lady : Would you mind posting the letter ?
Nita : No, Not at all.
*Should + Verb base
Example :
Nisa : Ima , you should go to library now ?
Ima : O.k.

Direct speech and Indirect speech

Direct speech : refers to reproducing another persons excact word. We use quotation marks (" ")

Example of Direct Speech :

1. Jani said, “I’m very busy .”

2. They said, “We have bought a picture.”

3. He said, “I am learning my lesson.”

4. Lisa says, “I got the first prize.”

5. You said, “I will come to help him.”

6. Oskar will say, “I will do my best.”

Indirect speech : refers to reproducing the idea of another persons

There are 3 kinds of indirect speech :

1. Imperrative (command/request)

2. interrogative (question)

3. Declarative (statement)

Example :
1. Imperrative (command / request)
Direct : Mrs. Rika said to Dina, "Don't wory about it."
Indirect : Mrs. Rika told Dina not to wory about it.

2. Interrogative (question)
Direct : Risa asked to Nico, "Are you a journalist?"
Indirect : Risa asked if / whether He was journalist.

3. Declarative (statement)
Direct : Mr. Dion said, "I worked hard yesterday."
Indirect : Mr. Dion said that he worked hard the day before.

In comand sentences, direct speech can changed to indirect speech with change "Said" to be "Ordered", "Told", and "Forbade".

Example :
1. Direct : Hamid said, "Open the door!"
Indirect : Hamid ordered to open the door.

2. Direct : Hamid said, "Dul, come here!"
Indirect : Hamid told Dul to come there.

3. Direct : Hamid said to Andi, "Do not disturb me!"
Indirect : Hamid forbade Andi to disturb him.

Simple Present Tense

Untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan , peristiwa , atau kejadian yang telah terjadi hari ini , atau perbuatan yang terjadi saat ini , atau kejadian yang berulang kali atau merupakan suatu kebiasaan sehari- hari.
Rumus :1. S + To be ( am, is , are) + ….
2.S + V1 + (s / es ) + ….
Example :
1. She is very happy.
2. He is diligent student.
3. They are there.
4. You are student.
5. He goes school every morning.
6. She does her homework.
7. Barra cooks in the kitchen.
8. They study English every week.
9. You can come to my house.

a. Verbal Sentence
Patterns :
(+) S + V1 (s/ es) + O
(-) S + do/ does + Not + V1 + O
(?) Do / does + S + V1 + O

Example :

(+) She does her homework.
(-) She does not do her homework.
(?) Does she do her homework ?

b. Nominal Sentence / Non Verbal Sentence
Patterns :
(+) S +To be (am / is / are ) + ….
(-) S + To be (am / is / are) + Not + ….
(?) To be ( am / is / are ) + S + …. ?
Example :
(+) She is very happy.
(-) She is not very happy.
(?) Is she very happy ?

Finite Verbs

A finite verb is a verb that is inflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages in which it occurs.
Finite verb can form “ Independent clause “ which can stand by their own as complete sentences , an independent clause as a complete sentence. It contains themain subject and verb of a sentences.

In English , only verbs in certain mood are finite
These include :

1. Indicative mood : expressing a state of affairs.

Dalam indicative mood, finite verb harus menggunakan varb, example :
1. The buldoser demolished the restaurant.
2. Ani is going to visit her mother in hospital.
3. He has waited his father since morning.

2. Imperative mood : Giving a command.

Dalam imperative mood, finite verb tidak memerlukan subjek karena tanpa memakai subjek pun kalimatnya sudah jelas.

Example : 1.Positive command

- Help me, please !

2.Negative verb
- Don’t do that.

Gratitude, Compliment, and Congratulation

1. Expressing Gratitude
Expressions of thanking
1. Thanks / Thank you.
2. Thanks a lot / Thank you so much.
3. Thank for your help / for the ride.
4. I’d like to thank you. -

Respons yg dapat di gunakan antara lain :
1. You’re welcome.
2. That’s all right.
3. No big deal / No problem.
4. That’s fine / My pleasure.
5. Not at all / Never mind.
Example :
Tiara : Nina, here is your book. Thank you.
Nina : you’re welcome. Are you sure you don’t need it anymore ?
Tiara: Absolutely.

2. Compliment


1. Wow, good job ! / Good grades!
2. Nice try ! / Nice work !
3. Keep up the good work !
4. What a nice dress ! / Outfit !

1. Thank you.
2. Really ?
3. I will.
4. Thanks a lot.

Example :
Novi : Yesterday I bought this novel. It’s for you
Anita : Oh, how kind you are . Thanks.
Novi : It is nothing.

3. Congratulation


1. Congratulations !
2. Happy birthday !
3. Happy Lebaran day ! / Merry Christmas !
4. Happy new year ! / Happy valentine !


1. Thank you
2. Thanks a lot .
3. Happy Lebaran day ! / merry Christmas too.
4. Happy New year/ Valentine too.

Example :
Sera : Nina ,Congratulations !
You won the English speech contest. Your English is so amazing.
Nina : Thank you.